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tv   Ray Smock Interview  CSPAN  January 3, 2015 11:03pm-11:16pm EST

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this sunday, the president and ceo of the nation's largest hispanic civil rights and advocacy group on the state of hispanics in america immigration reform, and her compelling personal story. >> i have the privilege of experiencing the american dream right here in this country. born right here in kansas. my parents came to this country in the very early 1950's, very early 1950's. my parents came from mexico with no money and very little education. my dad had an eighth grade education, my mom had a fifth grade education. they believed in the promise of this country, and they were seeking better opportunities for their children. so, they work really hard and sacrificed and so many latinos and hispanics have done this and
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this country because they want that future for their children and believe in the promise of this country. they taught really important values that have been our guide for all our lives, for me and my siblings, my six brothers and sisters. but they taught us the importance of family, of faith of community hard work sacrifice, honesty, integrity. all of these were important values that they shared with us. >> on c-span's q&a. >> all weekend long, american history tv is joining with our time warner cable partners to show us the history of austin, texas. to learn more about the cities on our tour, visit caller: -- visit content.
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this is american history tv on c-span3. >> the torch has been passed to a new generation of americans. >> i have a dream that one day -- >> and we shall overcome. [applause] >> ♪, gather round people wherever you roam and you have grown and accepted that thing you'll be drenched to the bone is your time worth saving? you better start swimming or you will sink like a stone the times, they are a'changing'♪ >> in the obj gallery we are
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featuring the 60 from the 60's exhibit. we highlight americans who had a great impact on the nation. some of these people are bob dylan, president lyndon johnson, barbra streisand. we have science. we have the apollo 11 crew. the first landing on the face of the moon. we highlight marshall nuremberg who not only cracked the genetic code back in the 1960's, but also won the nobel prize for his work. charles schultz, one of my favorite parts of the exhibit. we were lucky enough to get two of his original sunday comics. and a pair of skates that
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illustrates it was a lifelong amateur hockey fan. that is something we try to do in the exhibit, to find one object or one document that speaks to the accomplishments of each person. the importance of an exhibit like 60 from the 60's is to show how americans 50 years ago completed work that is still relevant in the 21st century. for example, in the early 60's, we launched the first communications satellite, which was the precursor to the electronic age we are experiencing now. satellite communications, cell phone reception, worldwide television reception. one of the people we are highlighting is the inventor of the world's first videogame
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which began the videogame revolution we have now. his prototype, that was developed in the 1960's, eventually was produced by magnavox, that they turned into the magnavox odyssey, which became the first commercially purchased videogame. the magnavox odyssey was the precursor to pong and pac-man and all of the video games that are on the market today. one of the many authors we have in the exhibit is a first edition copy of rachel carson's "silent spring" that was published in the early 60's. this book brought national attention to the plight and problems caused by the pesticide ddt, which in turn kicked off
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the modern environmental movement, which mrs. johnson during her time in the white house and afterward, championed this movement when she promoted programs like highway beautification. she started the lady bird johnson center here in austin and other environmental-type programs. >> the beatles! >> ♪ oh, yeah i will tell you something i think you will understand when i say that something i wanna hold your hand ♪ >> music was a very large part of the 1960's. in partnership with the grammy museum, we have both the soundtrack for the decade that
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we highlight within the exhibit -- the grammy museum put together a panel of musical experts. some of the most influential songs of the making 60's and the lbj library then posted those songs on her website and allow the public to vote on which were the most popular songs. bob dylan, "blowing in the wind" -- that occupies the top spot. >> ♪ the answer is blowing in the wind ♪ >> with our exhibit program, we hope to give people a better understanding of american history, especially we are looking to give a different perspective on not only the decade of the 1960's, but the
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entire scope of american history . >> throughout the weekend american history tv is featuring austin, texas. learn more about other stops on c-span's city store on you're watching american history tv. all weekend, every weekend on c-span 3. the 114th congress opens tuesday, january 6. house speaker john boehner will preside over the day's events. over the next few hours american history tv looks back at opening remarks from former house speaker's, tip o'neill, newt gingrich, dennis hastert, and nancy pelosi. first, we learn about the speaker's roll from the house historian raymond smock. >> what is a speaker's job?
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>> the speaker has a big job. it started as a constitutional office. because the constitution says the house shall choose their speaker. choose its speaker and other officers. there were no other duties mentioned. it was assumed since the founders knew all about speakers from colonial legislatures and from british parliament going back to the 13th century that what a speaker was, he speaker -- a speaker was a presiding officer. but in our congress, it was not only a presiding officer. he quickly became a powerful person because he appointed appointees and as the two-party system developed, the speaker it became the leader of the majority party with political
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ramifications. the constitution is silent on this. on the powers. the powers of the speaker is what the speaker can make of them, and that is the unique part of it. some speakers exercised great power, even rivaling the presidency in terms of setting the national agenda. most of those in recent times but also 100 years ago, two , powerful republicans, thomas brackett reed and joe cannon of illinois. reed was from massachusetts. they were powerful figures who set the agenda of the country. the first speaker, dylan berg of pennsylvania in the first congress, he simply was the presiding officer. he was paid two dollars more
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than the other members. six dollars a day. he got eight dollars a day. and for that eight dollars a day, he said, oh, i spent most of it on oyster suppers for the members. he did not feel like it was much of a bonus. he felt like he was losing money on the deal. but even he felt like he was elevated above the members. >> the door to the house chamber is behind you. the speaker is second in line to succeed to the president after the vice president. what does this say about the speaker's authority? >> the speaker is great -- has great authority in the constitution to that respect. that was changed in 1947 with the succession act which brought the speaker up to a higher position as the highest elected officer after the president and vice president. then it goes to the president pro tempore of the senate after that.
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the speaker is after the vice president, if something happens to the president, the speaker is in line to succeed. that 47 act was an effort to look at having someone in line that was an elected official. in the old days, it was the secretary of state. but since 1947, it has been the speaker. >> how has the job evolved since the time of the founders? >> it has evolved into something where the speaker today, other -- modern speakers, their role is to be the chief administrative officers of the house, even though they have other officers that are elected, but the speaker is where the buck stops for the administration of the house. the speaker is also the head of his party, and if that party is opposite that of the president


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